СИСТЕМА ECD Turbocharger Oil Leak and White Smoke

DESCRIPTION

Table 1. Description
Oil Leak Type Description Main Trouble Area

Internal oil leak

(White smoke)

Oil leak from center housing to compressor housing (intake side) or turbine housing (exhaust side) through the piston rings (the seal rings).

An internal oil leak is not visible from the outside of turbocharger.

If an oil leak occurs from the turbine side seal, a large amount of white smoke will be emitted from the exhaust pipe.

  • Compressor side piston ring (seal ring)

  • Turbine side piston ring (seal ring)

  • Clogging of oil drain

  • Shaft breakage

  • Shaft and bearing seizure

  • Compressor wheel damage

  • Low quality fuel

External oil leak

Oil leak from inside of turbocharger to outside of turbocharger (e.g. from compressor housing O-ring, oil pipe flange or oil pipe union).

Includes oil leak visible from outside of turbocharger.

  • Compressor housing O-ring

  • Oil pipe flange

  • Oil pipe union

  • Hose connection of intake pipe

Tip:
  • Turbocharger sub-assembly oil leaks are classified into 2 types. One is an internal oil leak, and the other is an external oil leak.

  • When oil leaks and smoke occur, the turbocharger may be mistakenly replaced, even though the turbocharger is not the cause of the problem.

  • When there are oil marks on the surface of the compressor housing, or oil in the compressor inlet or outlet, the problem may mistakenly be determined to be a turbocharger oil leak.

  • The parts of the turbocharger sub-assembly are shown in the following illustration.

A012JEJC01
*1 Compressor Housing *2 Piston Ring (Seal Ring)
*3 Compressor Inlet *4 Compressor Wheel
*5 Center Housing *6 Turbine Shaft
*7 Oil Drain (Outlet) *8 Compressor Housing O-ring
*9 Turbine Housing *10 Turbine Wheel
*a Internal oil leak to compressor housing *b Internal oil leak to turbine housing
A012IN5C01
*a Fig. 1 - -
Tip:
  • Above illustration is an example.

  • If there is an oil stain similar to the one shown in the illustration (fig. 1) on the turbocharger sub-assembly, it may be oil spray from parts surrounding the turbocharger sub-assembly or oil leaking from the air cleaner hose. Therefore, this kind of oil stain on the outer surface of the turbocharger sub-assembly is not caused by an oil leak from the turbocharger sub-assembly (external oil leak), and is not related to white smoke. For identification of an actual turbocharger sub-assembly outer oil leak, check only the sealing part shown in the following illustration.

A012L2ZC01

*a

Fig. 2

*b

Fig. 3

*c

Oil Existence at Compressor Inlet (Max. 5 cm3)

*d

Oil Existence at Compressor Outlet
Tip:
  • Above illustration is an example.

  • A certain amount of oil exists in the intake system because blow-by gas containing oil mist is returned to the intake system by the PCV. Therefore, the oil amount at the compressor inlet shown in the left figure (fig. 2) is normal and not an oil leak from the turbocharger sub-assembly (internal oil leak). Oil at the compressor outlet as shown in fig. 3 is normal.

    In addition, the compressor wheel surface may blacken due to blow-by gas but this is not abnormal.

A012ICIC01
*a Fig. 4 *b Oil Leak Check Point (compressor housing O-ring)
*c In the case of an actual oil leak, oil leaks from the sealed part - -
Tip:
  • Above illustration is an example.

  • This illustration (fig. 4) is an example of an air leak test performed by applying soapy water to the area of the leak. Bubbles indicate the leak point.

  1. Faults and Symptoms of Turbocharger Parts

    Table 2. Compressor Side Piston Ring
    Main fault Piston ring (seal ring) breakage
    Symptoms
    • Oil leaks to compressor housing

    • Excessive oil consumption

    Note
    • In the case of compressor piston ring (seal ring) failure, a large amount of oil will be found between compressor outlet and intercooler, and between intercooler and intake manifold, but not found at compressor inlet.

    • If large amount of oil is found at the compressor inlet, it is not from the turbocharger and may indicate a problem in the PCV system.

    Table 3. Turbine Side Piston Ring
    Main fault Piston ring (seal ring) breakage
    Symptoms
    • Oil leaks to turbine housing

    • Large amount of white smoke from exhaust pipe

    • Excessive oil consumption

    Note
    • In the case of turbine piston ring (seal ring) failure, a large amount of white smoke will be emitted continuously.

    • If white smoke is emitted only just after engine is started (and disappears later), or small amount of white smoke is emitted intermittently, it is not caused by the turbocharger sub-assembly. It is due to failure of other parts.

    • If wet oil is found at turbine inlet, it is not from turbocharger sub-assembly. It is due to problem in other parts.

    Table 4. Center Housing (Oil Drain Clogging)
    Main fault Oil drain clogged by coked oil
    Symptoms Large amount of white smoke from exhaust pipe
    Tip:
    • Oil coking is caused by insufficient oil maintenance.

    • If the oil drain is clogged by coked oil, oil cannot be drained smoothly, and it overflows from the center housing to the compressor housing and turbine housing. This results in a large amount of white smoke from the exhaust pipe.

      If any solid (coked oil) is visually confirmed inside the center housing, it can be assumed to be the cause of internal oil leak.

    A012FL0C01

    *1

    Oil Drain - -

    *a

    Coked Oil

    *b

    Oil Drain Clogged with Coked Oil
    Tip:

    Above illustration is an example.

    Table 5. Turbine Shaft
    Main fault
    • Breakage

    • Seizure

    Symptoms
    • Shaft does not rotate

    • Oil leaks to compressor housing

    • Large amount of white smoke from exhaust pipe

    • Lack of power

    • Turbocharger noise changes

    Note
    • In the case of turbine shaft failure, lack of power due to lack of boost pressure will be felt.

    • In cold conditions, shaft rotation can feel somewhat clingy due to viscosity of oil. Be sure not to mistake it for unsmooth shaft rotation.

    Table 6. Compressor Wheel
    Main fault Breakage
    Symptoms
    • Shaft does not rotate

    • Oil leaks to compressor housing

    • Lack of power

    Note
    • In the case of compressor wheel failure, a large amount of oil will be found between the compressor outlet and intercooler, and between intercooler and intake manifold, but not found at the compressor inlet.

    • Oil is blocked by boost pressure at compressor piston ring (seal ring). Therefore, if boost pressure does not increase due to breakage of compressor wheel, oil will flow out to compressor housing.

    Table 7. Compressor Housing O-ring
    Symptoms Oil leaks from compressor housing O-ring
    Note
    • If an oil stain is separated by compressor housing O-ring, it can be determined to be due to oil spray from other parts surrounding turbocharger.

    • If an oil stain is traced to a hose connection part, it can be determined to be due to a hose connection failure.

    A012I9NC01
    *1 Compressor Back Plate *2 Compressor Housing

    *a

    Oil Leak

    *b

    Oil Leak from compressor housing O-ring
    Tip:

    Above illustration is an example.

    Table 8. Intake Hoses
    Symptoms Oil leaks from the hose connection between the hose and compressor housing
    Note If an oil stain is traced to an hose connection part, it can be determined to be due to hose connection failure.
    A012KDYC01
    *1 Compressor Outlet *2 Compressor Housing
    *a Fig. 5 *b Trace of Oil Leak from Hose Connection Part
    *c Oil Leak from Hose Connection Part - -
    Tip:

    Above illustration is an example.

CAUTION / NOTICE / HINT

Note:
  • When replacing the ECM and/or injector assembly, perform ECM Initialization and Registration.

    Click here Нажмите здесь

  • When cleaning the electric EGR control valve assembly or diesel throttle body assembly, use a piece of cloth soaked with cleaning solvent. Spraying solvent directly onto these parts or soaking the parts in solvent may damage the parts.

Tip:

When the ECM must be replaced, before replacing the ECM, perform the "Learning Values Save" function using the GTS. Then after installing a new ECM, perform all of the initialization and registration procedures for the "Learning Values Write" function by following the instructions shown on the GTS display.

PROCEDURE

  1. CHECK TYPE OF OIL LEAK

    1. Check whether the oil leak is an internal or external oil leak.

      Tip:

      White smoke is not related to an external oil leak.

      Oil Leak Type Description

      Internal oil leak

      (white smoke)

      Oil leak from center housing to compressor housing (intake side) or turbine housing (exhaust side) through the piston rings (seal rings).

      Internal oil leak is not visible from the outside of the turbocharger sub-assembly.

      If an oil leak occurs from turbine side seal, large amount of white smoke will be emitted from exhaust pipe.

      External oil leak

      Oil leak from inside of the turbocharger to the outside of the turbocharger sub-assembly (e.g. from compressor housing O-ring, oil pipe flange or oil pipe union).

      Includes oil leaks visible from outside of the turbocharger sub-assembly.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      External oil leak A
      Internal oil leak B
    B Нажмите здесь

    A
  2. REPLACE THE PART WHICH IS LEAKING OIL

    1. Replace the part which is leaking oil.

      Result
      Proceed to
      NEXT
    NEXT

    END


  3. CHECK WHETHER WHITE SMOKE IS EMITTED

    1. Fully depress the accelerator pedal, and then release it.

    2. Check whether white smoke is emitted or not when racing the engine.

      ОСТОРОЖНО

      Be sure not to check for white smoke indoors.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      White smoke is emitted A
      White smoke is not emitted B
      A012JAA
    B Нажмите здесь

    A
  4. READ OUTPUT DTC (RELATED TO ENGINE)

    1. Connect the GTS to the DLC3.

    2. Turn the ignition switch to ON.

    3. Turn the GTS on.

    4. Enter the following menus: Powertrain / Engine and ECT / Trouble Codes.

    5. Read the DTCs.

      Powertrain > Engine and ECT > Trouble Codes
      Result
      ResultProceed to
      DTC is not outputA
      Engine related DTCs are outputB
    B

    GO TO DTC CHART Click hereНажмите здесь


    A
  5. CHECK WHITE SMOKE (ACCORDING TO ENGINE CONDITION)

    1. Check whether the white smoke is emitted only just after engine start, or not.

      A012JAA
      Tip:
      • If white smoke appears for only a short period of time immediately after the engine is started, the white smoke is not from the turbocharger sub-assembly.

      • If the turbocharger sub-assembly is the cause of the problem, regardless of whether the engine is cold or warmed up, there will be a large amount of white smoke emitted, to the extent that visibility will obstructed for a few meters by the smoke (as shown in the illustration).

      • Depending on whether there is oil mixed with the fuel, or whether there is unburned fuel present, the smell of the exhaust gas differs. When oil is mixed in, the exhaust gas smells like burning oil.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      Yes (white smoke is emitted only just after engine start) A
      No (white smoke is always and continuously emitted) B
    B Нажмите здесь

    GO TO STEP 18


    A
  6. CHECK TEMPERATURE WHEN WHITE SMOKE IS EMITTED

    1. Check whether white smoke is emitted only in cold conditions when the temperature is less than 0°C (32°F).

      Tip:
      • If white smoke is emitted only in cold conditions, the smoke is not from the turbocharger and may be the smoke of unburned fuel.

      • If misfiring occurs, unburned fuel is being emitted.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      Yes (white smoke is emitted only in cold conditions) A
      No (white smoke is emitted in both cold and warm conditions) B
    B Нажмите здесь

    GO TO STEP 8


    A
  7. INSPECT GLOW PLUG ASSEMBLY (RESISTANCE)

    1. Inspect the glow plug assembly.

      Click hereНажмите здесь

      Result
      Proceed to
      OK
      NG
    NG

    REPLACE GLOW PLUG ASSEMBLY Click hereНажмите здесь


    OK
  8. CHECK INJECTOR COMPENSATION CODE

    1. Read the injector compensation codes.

      Click hereНажмите здесь

      OK
      Compensation codes stored in the ECM match compensation codes of the installed injector assemblies.
      Tip:
      • If the compensation codes do not match, register correct compensation code.

      • If necessary, perform Learning Values Reset.

        Click hereНажмите здесь

      Result
      Proceed to
      OK
      NG
    NG

    REGISTER INJECTOR COMPENSATION CODE (AND PERFORM LEARNING VALUES RESET) Click hereНажмите здесь


    OK
  9. CHECK FUEL SYSTEM (DIESEL INJECTION SYSTEM)

    1. Check the fuel system.

      Click hereНажмите здесь

      Result
      Proceed to
      OK
      NG
    NG

    REPAIR OR REPLACE FUEL SYSTEM


    OK
  10. CHECK ELECTRIC EGR CONTROL VALVE ASSEMBLY

    Tip:
    • If the amount of EGR is excessive due to a failure of the electric EGR control valve assembly, combustion when the coolant temperature is cold becomes unstable and leads to misfire.

    • When the electric EGR control valve assembly cannot completely close, a lack of power is felt and the mass air flow meter value deviates from the standard value.

    1. Connect the GTS to the DLC3.

    2. Turn the ignition switch to ON.

    3. Turn the GTS on.

    4. Enter the following menus: Powertrain / Engine and ECT / Active Test / Control the EGR Step Position / Data List / Actual EGR Valve Pos.

      Powertrain > Engine and ECT > Active Test
      Active Test Display
      Control the EGR Step Position
      Data List Display
      Actual EGR Valve Pos.
    5. When changing the Active Test value, check that Actual EGR Valve Pos. smoothly changes to the set opening angle.

      OK
      Value smoothly changes to set opening angle.
    6. Remove the electric EGR control valve assembly.

      Click hereНажмите здесь

    7. Visually check the electric EGR control valve assembly for deposits. If there are deposits, clean the EGR valve and EGR passage (intake/exhaust manifold, EGR cooler, EGR pipes, etc.).

      Note:
      • When cleaning the electric EGR control valve assembly, make sure the valve is completely closed.

      • Do not forcibly open the valve, as it may be damaged or deformed.

      • When cleaning the electric EGR control valve assembly, use a piece of cloth soaked with cleaning solvent. Spraying solvent directly onto these parts or soaking the parts in solvent may damage the parts.

    8. Hold the electric EGR control valve assembly up to a light, and visually check that there is no gap between the valve and body.

      OK
      No light passes through (there is no clearance between the valve and body).
      Tip:
      • If light passes through (there is a clearance between the valve and body), replace the electric EGR control valve assembly.

      • Light passes through part A shown in the illustration even if the valve is completely closed, this is not a malfunction.

      A012MOXC06
      *1 Electric EGR Control Valve Assembly - -
      *a Part A *b Clearance
      *c OK *d NG
      Tip:

      If any inspection result above is NG, check the EGR system, referring to the procedure for DTC P042E.

      Result
      Proceed to
      OK
      NG
    NG

    GO TO EGR SYSTEM INSPECTION PROCEDURE (DTC P042E) Click hereНажмите здесь


    OK
  11. CHECK CYLINDER COMPRESSION PRESSURE

    1. Check the cylinder compression pressure.

      Click hereНажмите здесь

      Tip:
      • If any of following malfunctions occurs, white smoke is emitted.

        1. Nozzle seat sealing failure

        2. Piston cracking

        3. Piston rings breakage

      • To check if the pistons and piston rings have malfunctioned, remove the oil level dipstick. If oil sprays out, the pressure inside the crankcase has risen which indicates that there is a malfunction in a piston or piston ring.

      Result
      Proceed to
      OK
      NG
    NG

    CHECK ENGINE TO DETERMINE CAUSE OF LOW COMPRESSION


    OK
  12. REPLACE TURBOCHARGER SUB-ASSEMBLY

    1. Replace the turbocharger sub-assembly.

      Click hereНажмите здесь

      Result
      Proceed to
      NEXT
    NEXT
  13. CONFIRM WHETHER MALFUNCTION HAS BEEN SUCCESSFULLY REPAIRED

    1. Check whether the white smoke problem has been successfully repaired by starting the engine.

      Result
      Proceed to
      NEXT
    NEXT

    END


  14. INSPECT COMPRESSOR INLET

    1. Remove the air cleaner hose from the compressor inlet.

    2. Check whether an excessive amount of oil is present or not, and whether excessive oil deposits are attached to the compressor wheel or not.

      Tip:
      • A certain amount of oil may be present as shown in fig. 2 in "Description", because a certain amount of oil mist is contained in the PCV gas and this oil accumulates just before the compressor inlet.

      • If an excessive amount of oil is present at the compressor inlet, there may be a problem in the PCV system.

      Result
      Proceed to
      NEXT
    NEXT
  15. INSPECT COMPRESSOR OUTLET

    1. Remove the air hose from the compressor outlet.

    2. Check whether or not an excessive amount of oil or excessive oil deposits are present at the compressor outlet.

      Tip:

      A certain amount of oil may be present as shown in fig. 3 in "Description", because a certain amount of oil mist is contained in the PCV gas.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      Excessive amount of oil not present at compressor inlet and outlet A
      Excessive amount of oil present only at compressor outlet B
      Excessive amount of oil present at both compressor inlet and outlet C
    B Нажмите здесь

    GO TO STEP 18


    C

    CHECK PCV SYSTEM


    A
  16. INSPECT TURBINE INLET

    1. Remove the turbocharger sub-assembly from the engine.

      Click hereНажмите здесь

    2. Check whether an excessive amount of wet oil or excessive oil deposits are present at the turbine inlet.

      Tip:

      Be sure not to mistake carbon soot for oil.

      Result
      Proceed to
      NEXT
    NEXT
  17. INSPECT TURBINE OUTLET

    1. Check whether an excessive amount of wet oil or excessive oil deposits are present at the turbine outlet.

      Tip:
      • Be sure not to mistake carbon soot for oil.

      • If the turbocharger shaft is tilted, some amount of oil will flow out from the center housing. Therefore, be sure not to mistake oil that flowed out from the center housing during or after the removal of the turbocharger sub-assembly for oil that was present before the removal of the turbocharger sub-assembly.

      • If an excessive amount of oil or excessive oil deposits are present at the turbine inlet, this oil is coming from the exhaust port of the cylinders, and may indicate a problem in 1 or more cylinders.

      Result
      Result Proceed to
      Excessive amount of oil present only at turbine outlet A
      Excessive amount of oil present at both turbine inlet and outlet B
    B

    CHECK ENGINE TO DETERMINE CAUSE OF OIL IN TURBOCHARGER SUB-ASSEMBLY


    A
  18. REPLACE TURBOCHARGER SUB-ASSEMBLY

    1. Replace the turbocharger sub-assembly.

      Click hereНажмите здесь

      Result
      Proceed to
      NEXT
    NEXT
  19. CONFIRM WHETHER MALFUNCTION HAS BEEN SUCCESSFULLY REPAIRED

    1. Check whether the oil leakage problem has been successfully repaired.

      Result
      Proceed to
      NEXT
    NEXT

    END